The text below is taken from DN, science. I got a weird feeling when I read the whole thing. Fearlessness therefore classified as a disease to treat, so the person can get a “normal” life and avoid potential hazards. So it seems that someone / some want to pay this research therefore concluded that it is possible to create fear by using high concentration of carbon dioxide, even among those who were considered to be healthy. It bears thinking on.
American researchers have conducted a remarkable experiment. With the help of a gas, they have managed to scare the life out of three people who lack the ability to be afraid. The experiment shows that the brain can not handle fear as we previously thought.
It’s not that she has not had reasons to be scared through the years, on the contrary. She grew up in a tough area where both drugs and other criminal activities were commonplace. She has been robbed both by knife and gun, threatened to death and nearly beaten to death in connection with domestic violence.In retrospect, she said that she was both angry, upset and sad – but never fear. Not in the slightest.
What distinguishes SM from us other, more timid people is that, due to illness she have one-sided loss in the amygdala. It is a collection of neurons located deep in the brain’s temporal lobes, which have been associated with several of our most basic emotions, including fear.
A couple of years ago did Justin Feinstein, neuro-psychologist and his colleagues at the University of Iowa in the United States try to to provoke SM to be afraid. It went so-so.
The first thing the researchers did was to take her to a pet store, as SM had previously said that she tries to avoid reptiles. She was confronted with both snakes and hairy spiders, but to the researchers disappointment, she was not the least bit afraid. She held them in her hands, patted them and asked curious questions.
The tour was a visit to the Waverly Hills Sanatorium – during Halloween. It is an old hospital allegedly one of the most haunted places in the United States. During Halloween they make an actor dressed as monsters, evocative music and other props all to get the visitors to jump out of his shoes. SM went along with five of her unknown persons, but came out laughing with the terrified companions in tow. Then was various types of movie clips tested, usually foolproof method to induce fear in the volunteers. But no! SM did not feel the slightest discomfort.
Now, however, the same researchers managed to scare the life out of her and two other people suffering from the same disease. Not by ghosts, but by a gas. The subjects were breathing a gas with 35 percent carbon dioxide. For the first time since early childhood was SM scared. She panicked and thought she would die. The same thing happened with the other two. Afterwards did SM describe the event as the worst she had experienced. Additionally, she was surprised, because the feeling was so new. Among the twelve healthy subjects also received inhale the gas, only three reacted in the same manner.
The researchers, who published their findings in Nature Neuroscience, speculated that the brain has two different ways to produce fear. A system that responds to external stimuli and that passes through the amygdala, and which in certain circumstances can be triggered in time inside the body of carbon dioxide.
The case SM also shows the point of being scared, the researchers write. She has never been convicted of any crime. However, her handicap easily made her a victim. Since she did not get scared, she lacks the ability to pre-“sense” the environment and to detect potential hazards.